An Introduction To Currency Pairs

Engaging in Forex trading or foreign currency exchanges requires you to have a fundamental knowledge of how currency pairs function. This gives you the ability to exploit exchange rate fluctuations to the full. You basically buy or sell currencies while conducting an international fund transfer or exchange on the forex market. In any given transaction, the two currencies involved make a currency pair. To learn how currency pairs work in Forex and why it is important, read this guide in its entirety.

What Is a Currency Pair ?

A currency pair is the quotation of two different currencies which quotes the value of one currency against the other.   A currency pair’s first mentioned currency is called base currency, and the other currency is called quote currency. 

Currency pairs equate one currency to another— the base currency (or first currency) versus the second currency, or the quote currency. It indicates how much quota currency is needed to buy one base currency unit. Currencies are classified on the international market by an ISO currency code, or by the three-letter alphabetic code they are affiliated with. The ISO code would be USD for the U.S. dollar, instead.

How Do Currency Pairs Work in Forex

How Do Currency Pairs Work in Forex ?

Trading of currency pairs is carried out on the foreign currency market, also known as the forex market. It is the financial world’s largest, and most liquid market. This market allows for the purchase, sale, exchange and currency speculation. It also allows currencies to be converted to international trade and investment. The forex market is open 24 hours a day, five days a week, and is seeing a huge volume of trading. 

All forex trades involve buying one currency simultaneously and selling another currency, but the currency pair itself can be considered as a single unit — an instrument that is bought or sold. If you buy a pair of currencies, you buy the base currency and sell the quoted currency implicitly. The bid represents how much quota currency you need to get a base currency unit. 

Conversely, you sell the base currency and receive the quota currency when you sell the currency pair. The currency pair’s ask represents how much you’ll get for selling one unit of base currency in the quote currency. 

You are trading currencies as opposed to the stock or commodity market, which means you are selling one currency to buy another. You’re using cash for stocks and commodities to buy an ounce of gold or one share of Apple stock. Economic data relating to currency pairs–interest rates, information on gross domestic product (GDP), major economic announcements–affect a trading pair’s prices.

Why Is It Important to Know Your Forex Currency ?

Appreciating the strengths and weaknesses of the eight major currency pairs is important from the CAD to the euro and from the dollar to the yen if you want to understand the big picture. Let us also remember that anyone who wants to take advantage of the Forex futures contracts currency pair convention should be aware of how the relationship of one value will have an effect on the other. As you might have guessed, specializing in just one or two pairs is usually better. It can become difficult to try to follow broader movements between different relationships. With time and patience, you could very well enjoy an extra source of income!

What are the Major Currency Pairs ?

It’s important to understand the eight major currency pairs if you’re hoping to enjoy success trading Forex. Since these concepts and values are essentially the cornerstones of the Forex market. Appreciation of the values behind those trades is important. This generally starts with the identification of the eight major currency pairs as well as the value of each. 

We will now take a quick look at some of the most traded currencies, what each has in store, and what makes different Forex trading relationships relevant.


Because of the sheer global recognition of each currency, many investors consider this to be the principal currency trading pair. It is also important to note that in terms of the sheer trading volume, the US dollar is the number one currency at present. So it’s fair that many investors are going to look at the USD / EUR relationship regularly.


Another of the eight major currency pairs to be listed here. As the abbreviation indicates, the U.S. dollar value is attached to the Japanese yen. The yen is one of the G10 currencies, as are many denominations listed in this article. Hence, it can represent a benchmark for global economic health.


One of the big pairs of Forex trading is the British pound sterling (GBP) and US dollar. This not only includes the amount of each that changes hands on a daily basis, but it stems from the fact that both countries enjoy strong economic links to each other. Both “majors ‘” qualities are often leveraged against each other, as the pound is historically stronger than the dollar.


Sometimes referred to as the “Swiss dollar,” the CHF is another currency exchanged against the US dollar. This couple is one of the most conservative of the eight major currency pairs listed in this article. Because the Swiss franc’s value isn’t automatically tied to the EU. So in times of uncertainty it can be used as a hedge.


Although each of these eight major currency pairs listed with the sign of the dollar), ($the Canadian dollar appears to be slightly weaker. So those trading American dollars may choose to buy a CAD if the Canadian currency is expected to be strengthened.


Likewise, the Australian dollar and the US dollar are commonly traded. One advantage here is that investors can exploit any development that happens in the Far East without becoming active in other currencies like the yen or the Chinese renminbi.


The same aforementioned idea about the Australian dollar is often used when trading the NZD against the US dollar. Considering that New Zealand’s economy is heavily dependent on commodity prices, this is one of the eight major currency pairs that could be an ideal solution for traders looking to adopt a more conservative approach.


This is one of the many important Forex pairs that are often known as “crosses.” When referring to any pair that is not attached to the value of the US dollar, the word “cross” is used. Such trades should be considered by those who are wary of the state of the American economy or who might otherwise look for independent Forex currency options.

Minors and Exotic Pairs

Currency pairs unrelated to the U.S. dollar are called crosses or minor currency pairs. These pairs have narrower spreads, aren’t as liquid as the major ones, but are relatively liquid markets. Among the currency pairs that also mean the individual currencies are the crosses that exchange the most value. Examples include EUR / CHF, GBP / JPY, and EUR / GBP.

The odd currency pairs comprise currencies of the emerging markets. Those pairs aren’t as liquid and the spreads are much larger. The currency pairs Odd are less traded, and much more expensive to buy or sell. Don’t let the expense put you off, as with exotics many of the greatest traders of all time made their fortunes. Never shy away from great chances of success, simply because fewer speculators are pursuing them. This simply means you outsmarted others. The USD / SGD (US dollar / Singapore dollar) is one example of an exotic pair of currencies.

Here is a list of currency pairs by their sybols.










What Affects the Rates of Major Currency Pairs ?

The key factors influencing currency pairs are central bank, economic data and policy changes in overnight interest rates. 


Traders usually take smaller positions on the more volatile currencies, and larger positions on the less volatile. Volatility can hit any of these pairs at any time due to sudden interest-rate changes, dramatic economic outlook changes, or political instability. For up-to-date news and analysis it is important to follow these dedicated pages of markets above.

Interest rates 

Central banks have the duty to maintain financial and monetary stability. This they do by controlling interest rates. When a central bank raises its overnight interest rate it causes increased demand for that currency as investors and traders are seeking the higher yield which in turn appreciates the currency compared to other currencies.


Trade wars, elections, corruption scandals and policy changes carry uncertainty that reflects on the forex market. The government has the power to control the economy which can increase or depreciate the relative value of a currency.

Economic Data

Economic releases are reports that offer traders an insight into a nation’s economic performance. Important economic data affecting currency rates include data on CPI (inflation), non-farm payrolls (employment data), gross domestic product (GDP), retail sales, index of purchasing managers (PMI) and so on. 

What Are the Best Currency Pairs to Trade In ?


The euro and the US dollar are undeniably a trading classic, the most famous and popular pair of currencies. How justified is this market-leading title? Will an inexperienced trader manage to use that opportunity effectively? Needless to say, this pair does the greatest amounts of trading, and that is an advantage, of course, as it affects the spread. Some brokers sell Euro / Dollar trading with spreads as small as 0.8 pips, so you can make money on that pair even if you’re fancy pip strategies. The pair is also amongst the most unstable, as intraday movements can reach 100 pips. Intra-day trading is a good asset. Economic news is having a big impact on quotes from EUR / USD. In terms of fundamental analysis this is theoretically one of the simplest pairs. To trade successfully, you will need to keep a close eye on data from countries in the Eurozone and the USA. All of these are shown on the economic calendar. The most significant news is the meetings of the Fed and the European Central Bank, as well as GDP, inflation and labor market performance. The pair is convenient for trading, because the London session is their main activity. It’s reaching a peak of uncertainty at this time, and then continuing the current trend during the day. For this currency pair, a lot of strategies and trading EAs were created, and analysts never neglect that. Start trading with beginners is pretty simple, but it doesn’t mean other pairs shouldn’t be taken into consideration.


This currency pair holds a decent place among seasoned and inexperienced favourites. It is also very difficult to clear 130 pipes in one day, and there is no significant news that can cause even more fluctuations. Like the previous pair, during the European session GBP / USD is the most traded, so as soon as you wake up, you can instantly look into the economic schedule and see what is being published today by the USA and the UK. The pair responds very strongly to the basic data, but as a rule the impact of the news is limited, and the pair returns to a quiet state soon after the relevant statistics are written. By the way, it’s a very tempting pair for those traders who like technical analysis. It works perfectly out the lines of opposition and support but bear in mind that there are more breakouts than bounces. Be prepared also for the fact that the pair makes broad up and down motions at the start of the London session, due to which false breakouts occur. Trade becomes easier as company becomes more stable.


The US dollar and Swiss franc are among the most common currencies as well. It is worth noting that the formal differentiation of the uro from the French franc happened only in 2015, and the conduct of the USD / CHF has changed significantly since that time. The pair is more open to U.S. fundamental data, and less sensitive to Swiss news, possibly because in this country the economy is more stable. European and American sessions are the most active trading hours, during which the volatility may be 60-70 pips. For this pair Monday is the quietest trading day, and the busiest is Friday. Simple link with EUR / USD is a nice bonus. While illustrating the inverse correlation, this pair is cited as an example from a textbook: while EUR / USD increases, USD / CHF goes down. Conversely, as EUR / USD rises, USD / CHF increases. As a rule, pattern trends are smooth and smooth, which is why this pair is well-applied to advanced analytical tools.


Also quite interesting is the pair with “Aussie,” it’s one of the six so-called big pairs on the Forex market. The Australian / American pair is quite stable relative to other members of our ranking, its variability is around 60 pips during the day. This one reveals regular reversals of trend change, as opposed to the previous set. It renders resistance-and support-based methods, as well as Fibonacci phases. The pair reacts to the news from the USA as well as to the data on the Australian commodity market as regards the fundamental data. The reality is that AUD is extremely dependent on the level of commodity exports as the basis for Australian GDP. The pair is most successful at the junction of the Asian and Pacific sessions, but is also able to show significant movements during the other two sessions.


The US dollar and the Japanese yen duet are very attractive, albeit a little whimsical. The US dollar is the world’s major currency, and the yen is the Asian region’s main currency. Yuan is strengthening its status but the yen holds first place as long as it remains not quite completely convertible. The main basic data for the USD / JPY pair fits out early in the morning, nearly at night, so it’s advised to trade the pair into “larks” instead of “owls.” However, the pair’s volatility rises during the American session, when news from the USA is published. On average, the volatility intraday does not surpass ninety pips, which is still considerable. Please note that the pair is in strong agreement with the Nikkei 225 main Japanese stock index. The USD / JPY chart shows a similar upward trend when the index is rising, and vice versa: the decline in the index is proportional to the dollar / yen falling. The pair is noteworthy because it follows without major reversals if it comes into the pattern. Some delays occur, and then graphic figures like “post” or “pennant” are visible on the screen. And that means that graphical analysis is very useful to you for working with this asset.

What Is Currency Correlation ?

Currency correlation means that one currency pair follows similar trends to another. Currency pairs have a positive relation that sees them in the same direction. If one currency pair goes up, so does the other. There’s a negative link between currency pairs in opposite directions. This means the other currency pair decreases as one currency pair’s production increases. Currency pairs with zero touch travel in either direction, independent of each other. Although some currency pairs shift parallel, other currency pairs move in opposite directions, resulting in more complex powers. The statistical indicator of the financial world securities relationship is correlation. The correlation coefficient ranges from -1.0 to + 1.0 A+ 1 meaning the two currency pairs move 100% of the time in the same direction. While a correlation of-1 means that both currency pairs move 100% of the time in the opposite direction, a zero correlation implies a totally random interaction between currency pairs.

How Important Is Currency Correlation To A Trader ?

In order to be an effective investor, knowing your entire portfolio’s susceptibility to market volatility is important. In forex trading this is especially so. Since currencies are priced in pairs, no single pair trades entirely separate from the others. If you know these associations, and how they are shifting, you can use them to track your overall portfolio exposure. Then it is obvious that correlations change, which makes the correlations after the transfer even more important. Vulnerability and pressures on the global economy are highly dynamic, and can even change daily. 

Today, the clear similarities between the two currency pairs may not match the longer-term correlation. Therefore, the 6-month trailing correlation is also very important. This gives a better perspective of the typical 6-month relationship between the two currency pairs that looks more secure. For a variety of reasons, the correlations change, the most important of which involves divergent monetary policies, a currency pair’s vulnerability to commodity prices, and different economic and political factors.

Mitigates Overall Risk

The aim of each trader is to minimize losses and maximize profits at all times. Currency correlation can affect your Trading account’s exposure and risk. As a forex trader, knowing the relationship between the currency pairs is important. It helps you to understand your risk exposure so you can track your risks Let’s say you lose 2 per cent of a single trade account. If you open a long position on bothGBP / USD and EUR / USD, that means you have two trades each with a 2 per cent risk. Owing to a positive correlation betweenGBP / USD and EUR / USD, if a currency pair moves against your trade, the other also moves against your trade. Your chance is doubling to 4 percent. Knowing the link between currencies helps you avoid putting your account at high risk.

Helps Avoid Unnecessary Losses

If you open up a long position on the EUR / USD and a short position on the GBP / USD because the two are moving in the same direction, one will definitely benefit and the other will fail. Any benefit on one trade shall be compensated by the loss on the other.Likewise, if you open the same position on a negative associated pair, like going long on the EUR / USD and the USD / JPY as one loses you gain on the other. The profit made on one exchange is likewise offset by the loss on the other. If you consider currency correlation before opening positions, then you are a step ahead to avoid unnecessary spread losses and making little or no money. It also lets you choose the best pairs to trade easily without having to keep an eye on your trade all the time.

Generating Signals and trend Confirmation

You can use currency correlation to confirm the direction of pattern of the couple you are currently watching. All you do is test whether the pairs that are positively correlated are going along with the currency pair you plan to exchange. So if the currency pair that you want to exchange drops down, you can use other currency pairs that compare favorably to see if they are moving down to validate your study as well. More to that, you can also use correlation on the currency pair you wish to exchange to produce trade signals. If the currency pair in question ranges and you anticipate an upside breakout, you can utilize positively correlating pairs to see whether the upside is on the breakout to confirm your trade signal.

How To Use Correlations To Trade Forex

Correlations may help you avoid joining two positions that cancel each other out. A further factor to consider is diversification. Since the link between EUR / USD and AUD / USD is not traditionally 100 per cent positive, traders can also use two pairs to rebalance their risk while maintaining a core directional view. For example, the trader can buy one lot of the EUR / USD and one lot of the AUD / USD instead of buying two lots of the EUR / USD to express a bearish outlook on the US$. The weak correlation between the two different currency pairs provides greater diversification and lower risk marginally. In addition, Australia’s and Europe’s central banks have different monetary-policy preferences, so in case of a dollar rally, the Australian dollar may be less affected than the euro, or vice versa. A trader may also use different pip or point values for its advantage.

It is also very important to be aware of the link between different currency pairs and their changing patterns, regardless of whether you are trying to keep expanding your positions or find alternate pairs to exploit your perspective. For all professional traders keeping more than one currency pair in their trading accounts, this is powerful information. This information assists traders in diversifying, hedging or doubling profits.


Forex traders make use of discipline and continuity in their business. If you’re new to forex trading, pick liquid currency pairs such as the EUR / USD or USD / JPY. Then test the fundamentals and the technicals until you learn what the currency pairs are doing. Determining the right leverage when trading currencies is of crucial importance. Lots of traders inexperienced forex wipe out their accounts because they are using excessive leverage. A forex trading strategy can help ensure consistency and discipline among traders. This can lead to actions affecting competitiveness and prevent loss. Read our Guide to Good Traders Attributes to stop traders making the number one mistake. Choose the best time frame for trading which suits your needs. Depending on which one appeals to you most, you can choose from scalping, day-trading or swing-trading. Using our forecasts on free trade in major currencies to stay ahead of the forex market. And see our currency-market news and articles on technical analysis for daily updates on major forex pairs.


The foreign exchange market is the global currency trading market, also referred to as the forex or the FX. It is the world’s largest, liquidest finance market. When forex trading, the currencies are exchanged in pairs such as the Australian dollar and the US dollar (AUD / USD), or the Japanese yen (EUR / JPY).

A pair of currencies is a base currency and a quote currency (or counter currency).   It is a way of displaying and selling one currency over another. Conventionally currency pairs are displayed as 2 currency names, divided by a slash. With the currency pair “EUR/USD,”for example, the euro (EUR) represents the base currency and the quotation currency is the US dollar (USD).

The world’s most often traded currency pairs are called the Majors. These pairs all comprise one side of the U.S. Usd (USD).   EOLBREAK The major currencies include the New Zealand dollar, Australian dollar,  Japanese yen, Swiss franc, Canadian dollar, British pound US dollar, and euro.

A minor currency pair is one that has no US dollar in it. Often known as “cross-currency” sets, or simply as “crosses.” 

For example, minor currency pairs are GBP / JPY, EUR / AUD, and EUR / GBP. The most actively traded crosses come from the British pound sterling (GBP), Japanese yen (JPY), and euro (EUR).

A pip is the term used to describe the smallest incremental step an exchange rate can make on the forex market. For instance, if an exchange rate had been 1.2510 previously and increased by a pip, the exchange rate would be 1.2511.

The distribution is the disparity between the price of the bid and the asking price. The bid represents the price a buyer would pay in the market, and the offer is the price a seller is prepared to accept. For instance, the bid / ask spread of USD / JPY is 110.00/110.02. Less-actively traded currency pairs have wider spreads.